Marcus Node Bits: Basic Authentication with Koa

Posted by Marcus Hammarberg on May 2, 2014
Stats
As you might know I have fallen in love with Koa Js. I have, from experience, also come to realize that if you want to really understand a framework or tool you need to build something real with it. In that spirit I created a little voting site that we will in my current job.
The whole application is simple; basically you can create a simple question (poll maybe is a better word) that you want someone to answer. “How did you enjoy your stay?” for example. There are then only 4 valid answers (Sad smile, Disappointed smile, Smile and Open-mouthed smile). The whole idea is that answering this is just pushing a button on your way out. Like a physical Facebook like-button. From this we can gather some simple, but interesting data about what people thinks about the question asked.
However, soon I came to realize that I wanted to be able to add new questions, or fix spelling errors etc. But since the site was open I needed some sort of authentication to make sure that not everyone could change this. I opted for the most basic I could think of. Hmmm Basic Authentication.
Yes – I know that I could have done this with Twitter etc. but this was just a simple thing. I would think that maybe some of you might use this for internal applications etc.
In the rich Koa echo system there’s support for basic-authentication (koa-basic-auth) and this post describes how I set that up. In doing so I learned a couple of things about Koa and how the middleware works. It was interesting for me – I hope you enjoy it too.
As you might know I have fallen in love with Koa Js. I have, from experience, also come to realize that if you want to really understand a framework or tool you need to build something real with it. In that spirit I created a little voting site that we will in my current job.
The whole application is simple; basically you can create a simple question (poll maybe is a better word) that you want someone to answer. “How did you enjoy your stay?” for example. There are then only 4 valid answers (Sad smile, Disappointed smile, Smile and Open-mouthed smile). The whole idea is that answering this is just pushing a button on your way out. Like a physical Facebook like-button. From this we can gather some simple, but interesting data about what people thinks about the question asked.
However, soon I came to realize that I wanted to be able to add new questions, or fix spelling errors etc. But since the site was open I needed some sort of authentication to make sure that not everyone could change this. I opted for the most basic I could think of. Hmmm Basic Authentication.
Yes – I know that I could have done this with Twitter etc. but this was just a simple thing. I would think that maybe some of you might use this for internal applications etc.
In the rich Koa echo system there’s support for basic-authentication (koa-basic-auth) and this post describes how I set that up. In doing so I learned a couple of things about Koa and how the middleware works. It was interesting for me – I hope you enjoy it too.

Basic Authentication

Let’s head up to the koa-basic-auth code and see what they have to say to help us. I’ve created a gist of that code.

I had to read this a couple of times before I fully understood how it goes together. This is how I understand it.
Line 23 is where we use the auth (that is required on line 1) object and, in this case, simply hard code it to a user object. The properties of this object needs to be name and pass.
On line 27 we find the complete application that simply returns a string… A secret string… You need to be authenticated to see that.
Lines 7-19 is where this authentication is required. Here we create a little middleware of our own. Did you see that little line in the beginning of the example section of the README? “Password protect downstream middleware”.  Remember that Koa is built up of tiny pieces of middleware (often just a single function) that is stitched together. The koa-basic-auth middleware passwords protects the middleware called after it. This comes handy now.
The app.use() is how middleware is added to Koa. You probably seen app.use(logger()) is you’ve read any Koa-examples. The function on 7-9 takes a next variable as parameter, which is Koa’s way of representing the next middleware to call in the chain. We simply do your stuff in this middleware and then wait (using yield) for the rest of the middleware chain. Or, as in this case, wraps the rest of the chain with something.
This function wraps “the rest of the chain” with an error handler. Since we are using koa-basic-auth (on line 23) to require authentication on the complete site, all our requests will throw an 401 Unauthorized error. We catch that (line 11) and creates a response that:
  • Set’s the status to 401
  • Writes a nice message to the body of the response
  • Set’s the header to WWW-Authenticate that for most browsers (?) triggers the all familiar basic authentication log-in box.  
Yeah, that’s a pretty around about way of doing it you might think, but it’s just a couple of lines of code that sets up this. I did, however encapsulate this in another file resulting in this:

Which is the same thing but only exposes 2 lines (ah, well 4 if you count the require-statement) in your app.js. A bit simpler. Hence better, in my book.

For parts of my site

About here I came to realize that this effectively meant that you had to be logged in to vote. Obviously this was not good enough. Thanks to some quick help from TJ I soon realized the Koa-way of doing this. You guessed it: “there’s a middleware for that” ©,™ & ®. I’m hereby claiming the rights to that phrase. It will be a thing!
Ok, silliness aside; there’s another middleware called koa-mount, which mounts applications.
Mount other Koa applications as middleware. The path passed to mount() is stripped from the URL temporarily until the stack unwinds. This is useful for creating entire apps or middleware that will function correctly regardless of which path segment(s) they should operate on.
Ah – that sounds about what we need. We want to mount the basic authentication middleware for part of our application. Once I knew about that it was almost trivial to append that to my application.
Here’s how it looks in my application right now using the same authentication.js as above:

It was all about 2 new lines (9 and 10) that says which URLs that should be password protected. And my reqBasic-middleware function is still included on line 8.

Configuration

It was at this point that I was about to commit this an push it to GitHub. And I realize that the whole programming humanity (maybe not…) would read the username and password, since it’s hard coded into my code.
I also thought about testing (we come to that later) and publishing this. And there was gnashing of teeth's. Because now I needed to have this configurable, and to select the correct configuration for the correct environment.
Luckily I had a configuration object in place already, for Mongo parameters and other things, so I build from that. Here is how the object ended up looking;
There’s quite a lot of stuff going on in there that really doesn’t have with this post to do but let’s go through the highlights:
  • The last lines (28-30) is a function that simply exposes the object as a function. This is so that you can go var config = require([path])(‘test’) if you wanted to. Or it picks up the parameter from you starting node. And if nothing of that is supplied it defaults to ‘local’, which is the name I used for my development environment.
  • The config object itself is, thankfully, a bit more straightforward. It sets up the different settings for the environments. However only one of them are returned by the function we just mentioned. Remember that JavaScript objects is just key-value pairs and you can index into the objects with strings. That is what that strange line is really doing (config[mode || process.argv[2] || 'local'] would eventually be evaluated as config[‘local’] for example).
Let’s talk a bit about the authentication parts also, sorry for that longish detour;
  • Lines 3-5 sets up an object that either uses the process.env parameters BASIC_USER and BASIC_PASS or some default values. That object is stored in a adminUser variable.
  • That variable is then slabbed onto the config-object, that I return, resulting in that I can use it like this in my authentication module:
var config = require('../config')();
module.exports.user = config.user;
This means that if you have set anything in process.env.BASIC_USER that will be used, if not ‘marcus’ will be used. You can pass the process environment variables as parameters to the node process at your command prompt.
In the development and testing case I will not set anything in those variable and hence have a known state (marcus, koavote) to test against. In the production environment however…

On Heroku or other providers

.. you need to supply it as parameters to Node as I wrote above. You could do this by setting these parameters in the start script of your package.json but that would defeat our purpose of having to check in the username and password in clear text.
settingConfigVarsMost providers provide (hihi) a way to set these process parameters in their platform as a service configuration. For Heroku (that I am using) that looks like this and worked beautifully if it hadn’t been for my own stupidity where I had a typo in the production code. Test all the things that could possible break!
So now I can set the username and password that I want to use in production in the production environment and have another for testing purposes. Speaking of testing…

How do I test this?

Oh man, this grew long. Luckily the testing story is just beautiful, using Supertest. I just pick up my testing-config object and use those parameters to authenticate the Supertest request with. Here’s is one test that does all that.

The interesting line here is line 12 where I use the .auth() function of supertest, passing it the variables from my config user described above.

Summary

I learned a lot from getting this to work. Much more than things about authentication and doing the very basic password protection I first wanted. Hmmm… there might be something in there… You learn stuff by pushing it out into production and starting to use it for real. I should write about that. Nah! It will never catch on.


Published by Marcus Hammarberg on Last updated