Over and over again I’ve seen the main gain from using
specification by example emerge in the conversations
you have around the specifications. I’ve even been known to tell people
to just make sure to do the specifications on a whiteboard, take a photo
of it and then don’t use anymore of the practices. Just doing that will
help an awful lot - I promise.
But lately I’ve come across a situation that have got me to think about
the other end and what happens when we don’t automate our scenarios.
It’s a continuity thing and it doesn’t hang together.
If you read my blog before you know I’m a sucker
for stories and let me illustrate my point with two stories.
| From spotify.com |
The first story comes from a team at
moved faster than any other I’ve seen. We’re talking deciding how to
improve our business in the morning, code it during the day and deploy
it in the afternoon. I was assigned to coach this team and we came to
talk about specification by example and gave it a try. I thought.
I got the team into a room (four people) and using their next thing to
build (which actually was big in their numbers; two weeks worth of work)
as an example we simply specified the business rules. As often it ended
up a big table on the board. In the process (again as it often does) we
found a couple of inconsistencies, better ways of doing things, and
could actually skip a couple of cases.
The end result was a big table that I drew for them. We took a photo of
it and I sent that to the team in an email. I then showed them
Cucumber and gave them
some pointers to good things to read. And off they went.
A couple of days later I checked in with the team again and asked them:
“Could you run some scenarios for me?”. Their answer?
Say what?! Ah - the automation stuff. Well, we skipped that. But the
workshop was awesome - we learned so much about this. Thanks. The
feature is actually close to finished. Both the coding and the testing
has been super simple since we could just follow the “spec” in the
They simply didn’t need the automation part for their work. And since
it probably shouldn’t last for that long in production the
specifications was short lived.
The whole shabang, and a bunch of rotten specs
| From specificationbyexample.com |
At another client they have gone all-in on specification by example.
They wrote the specs together (learned a lot), refined them into their
business language, automated them against their system, ran them often
and also generated a nice documentation using
. This had been going on for a couple of
years and they had about 400 scenarios.
One day a tester came over to me and said:
> I love the pickles-site, it's so easy to read and search. But when I
> browsed through it I saw some cases that was missing and an error. Can
> I update those specifications through the Pickles-site?
(No you can't. Pickles is a read-only-generated documentation, for a
good reason. You want the text in the scenario to be tied with the
version that implements them. Sidenote)
Now... this was strange. How could it be errors in there? Well as it
turns out the practices of writing and maintaining the automation of the
specifications had been abandon a year ago. It was too cumbersome and
"took too much time". Besides "the automation was too brittle and was a
hassle to maintain".
But now we came to realize a thing; the specifications had rotten. Just
like any documentation that we cannot have checked for us
### Findings and conclusions
No to the real reason of this blog post; No - you don't **have** to do
the automation part. But if you don't you will end up with
specifications that will be out of date the second someone changes the
system (writes code in other words).
And yes - writing the automation part is hard, hard work. So what do we
do when something is hard and complicated? We break it down into the
smallest possible piece. Writing the automation of a scenario is not
that hard (and will teach you a lot about your code) if you do it before
and during the implementation of each new feature.
Keeping the other specifications (regressions) up to date could be hard
work if the tests are brittle, for example hits the UI. Always keep
maintainability as a top priority when writing your automation code.
Finally slow running tests are a regression problem that should be
address in the same manner as you do a bug that is introduced when
developing a new feature. That's not me saying that. It's
So that was a bunch of bad news and more work for us to do... What can
we do about it? Here's my short list of things that could help the
#### Specifications are not tests
his book Gojko Adzic
very little about testing and quite a lot about specifications. Yet a
lot of us (yes, me too... probably in this post even) often confuses the
two. I think that's because we use a testing framework to implement the
Let's take an example business rule: "if you buy three book, or more,
shipping is free". If you had your tester hat on which cases (for the
number of books) would you try?
| | |
| Number of books | Free shipping? |
| 2 | No |
| 3 | Yes |
| 4 | Yes |
| 5 | Yes |
| 6 | Yes |
| 7 | Yes |
| 8 | Yes |
| -1 | Eeeeh? |
| 0 | No? |
| abc | What? |
| 10000000 | Eeeeh? |
| 1e+10 | is that even correct? |
But if this is what Gojko calls a "key example" then I can think of just
a few examples. Key examples are examples that makes sure that we
understand the business rule in the same manner. Here are my examples:
| | |
| Number of books | Free shipping? |
| 2 | No |
| 3 | Yes |
There's a difference in focus here. And by all means we might have to do
all the other tests as well but they doesn't teach us more about the
business rule in play.
#### Write once, run never
That heading is a bit misleading but I've heard about teams that for new
features write the scenarios and automate them, but when the feature is
implemented they throw the scenario away. Mind blown! Why would they do
They need the scenario(s) during the time they develop and test the
feature but afterwards it isn't of that great use to them. Instead they
keep a much smaller suite of features that shows the main flows in the
applications and the most important (or complicated) business rules.
Maybe always keep that specification suite to 50 features, for example.
If a new feature updates any of the main flows they, of course, go
through the trouble of updating that suite of specifications.
#### Don't automate against the UI if you don't have too
UI automation is super cool and I still get a buzz from seeing my scrips
clicking around in my application. But UI automation is inherently slow
and brittle. You don't have to use it to verify your system. Maybe you
can just verify this feature using your domain, or running you system
but in a controlled environment, with mocked dependencies (see my
post on doing
, or if you can
stand it; watch me presenting this
Doing this will not only make your executable specifications run faster
(which in turn assures that they are run... often) but they will be more
resilient to changes in your application. The UI is the part of the
application that changes the most, in my experience. UI automation means
writing code to run the application. That means tying your automation
code directly to the UI, in some way. Change the UI automatically means
changing the UI.
Keep maintainability your first priority when automating.
The greatest gain of specification by example is the improved
communication. But the output of that communication rots pretty fast. If
you want to keep your specifications relevant you need to automate them.
If you automate your specifications you need to have them run fast, and
be resilient to change in your application.